SPV power plant consists of SPV modules in arrays (total wattage being 1 kW or more), re-chargeable battery bank, power conditioning unit (inverter & charge controller) etc. When sunlight falls on the SPV module, DC current is produced, which is stored in a battery bank. The inverter converts the DC current from the battery into AC current which, in turn, is used for operating various loads, such as, lights, fans or other electrical appliances in the building, subject to the total load (watts) being restricted to the capacity of the module (Wp).
· Emergency power supply can be availed at any time for 4 hours or more per day subject to increase in module capacity.
· It has no moving parts and is easy to run and maintain
· For areas facing power interruptions, SPV power plant is a boon, as it provides emergency and uninterrupted operation of loads such as fans, lights, computers etc.
· No fuel is required and recurring power consumption charges are reduced/eliminated.
|Type||Capacity||Water Level Depth (maxi) m||Discharge Rate / day(litres)|
|DC Surface||900 Wp – 1 Hp||14||75 000|
|1800 Wp – 2 Hp||14||1 40 000|
|AC submersible||1800 Wp – 0.75 Hp||50||50 000|
Cost and Subsidy
Systems installed as per the technical specifications/standards prescribed by MNRE are eligible for claiming subsidy.
SPV power plant may also be grid connected and power generated could be exported to the grid. PCU senses the grid voltage frequency and modifies the PV array output voltage and frequency so as to synchronize with the grid and feeds the AC power generated from PV array to the grid.
Grid interactive solar power plants can also be installed for voltage support in rural areas of the grid, peak shaving in urban centres and diesel saving in islands or remote locations.
Cost for grid interactive plant:
Tentative cost of a 100 kWp grid interactive SPV power plant is about Rs.1 crore.
Solar PV Power Generation
In order to promote the use of Solar Energy for producing grid quality power in the country, The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India, has introduced new policy guidelines in January 2008, the salient features are given below:
For the first time, generation based incentives was provided for grid interactive solar power generation. A maximum amount of Rs.12.00 per Kwh was provided as incentive for electricity generated from solar photovoltaics and Rs.10.00 per Kwh for electricity generated through the solar thermal route and fed to the grid from a power plant of minimum 1 MW capacity and above. The incentive is provided to the project developers at a fixed rate for a period of ten years for the projects which are commissioned by 31st December 2009. This incentive is available forall the existing registered companies, Central and State Power generation companies and public/ private sector solar power project developers who had set up a registered company in India. The maximum capacity per project is 5 MW either through a single project or multiple projects of a minimum capacity of 1 MW each. Each state was allowed to set up up to 10 MW under this programme. These projects have been undertaken on Build, Own and Operate basis.
· The first 5 MW grid connected solar photovoltaic power plant was successfully commissioned in Tamil Nadu in Sivagangai District in December 2010 under the Demonstration Programme of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
· Out of the 7 projects of 1 MW each capacity sanctioned to Tamil Nadu under the Roof Top Small Solar Power Generation Programme(RPSSGP) of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission(JNNSM), 6 projects have been commissioned so far.
· Under the NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam (NVVN) Bundling Scheme, 1 no. 5 MW SPV Power Plant has commissioned in the state.
New and Emerging uses of Solar PV Systems
(i) Solar Fencing
Solar fencing is useful particularly in remote areas where elephants, or other wild animals from nearby forests destroy agricultural crops. A 37 W solar panel can charge a 12 V battery and an energizer will convert the charge into 8 000 V, 150 mA current. Whenever the wild animals come in contact with the fence, they get a heavy shock for 1/10 second and due to very low milli amps current flow, no harm is caused to the animal; but they are scared away. It can be used particularly to prevent entry of wild animals in the farms near forest areas. It costs about Rs.1 lakh per km or Rs.20,000 per acre. The total cost will come down with the increase in the area covered.
(ii) Solar Traps / pest catchers
Solar lantern with some minor modifications are used as solar traps and pest controller which traps the pests causing damage to the crops. It is very useful to farmers not only as an emergency light but also for protecting the crops from pests. It costs about Rs.3 500 / each.
(iii) Solar Traffic Signals
Solar powered traffic signal system uses SPV panel to produce current, which is stored in a battery and used for operating the LED signal lamps for required hours of operation.
(iv) Police wireless system in remote areas
Police Department uses batteries for continuous operation of communication equipment which is vital for linking their operations throughout the state. Solar energy can be used for charging of batteries for more effective and long term use and to reduce recurring cost. SPV charged batteries are useful for transmitters in rural / remote areas ( RASI ) where grid supply may not be available all the time.
(v) Telecommunication network
In remote locations which are not electrified or face frequent power interruptions, working of telecom systems would get affected. Solar charged batteries would be of great help to maintain uninterrupted operation.
(vi) Solar T.V. and other devices
Solar energy can also be used for running T.V. sets or radios or charging mobile phones or a fan or any other electrical appliance depending upon power required for these devices. Solar powered refrigerators can also be used for storing of life saving drugs, vaccines etc in remote places.